Microbiology is the scientific discipline that examines microbes and microbial diseases. Microbes, small organisms that require microscopic tools for visualization, encompass bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. The discoveries of microbes and the realization that they represent causative agents of human, animal and plant diseases have transformed biological sciences and established the very broad foundations of molecular medicine. Antimicrobial therapies, vaccines, hygiene and antiseptic techniques are intellectual achievements that represent foundations for the current medical revolution. Apart from the contributions of Microbiology to human health, the foundations of modern molecular biology and genetics rest on research carried out with microbes. Basic research in Microbiology underwrites our effort for eradication of important pathogens, prevention of human diseases, development of gene therapies and the evolution of new strategies for personalized medicine. “